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                    二十四節氣的當代價值
                    發表時間: 2018-08-10來源: 中國文化
                          【和諧中國網·文化】2016年11月,“二十四節氣——中國人通過觀察太陽周年運動而形成的時間知識體系及其實踐”列入人類非物質文化遺產代表作名錄,自此,二十四節氣的保護和傳承就成為全國上下普遍關注的熱點問題。近日,黨中央批準、國務院批復,自今年起,將每年農歷秋分設立為“中國農民豐收節”,彰顯了節氣的當代價值。具體而言,二十四節氣的當代價值體現在以下幾個方面: 
                      第一,具有時間標記和時季轉換的提示意義。二十四節氣首先是一種計時方式,是中國人將一回歸年劃為24份并分別給予名稱的時間制度,它和歲(年)、時、月、旬、日、時辰、刻等一起構成了中國傳統社會基本的時間單位。對二十四節氣的標注和使用,意味著中國在與世界節奏保持一致的同時,又保留了自己的特色和元素。不僅如此,二十四節氣的名稱本身即將時間的流轉與氣候、物候的變化相關聯,其中有8個反映了季節變化(即二分二至和四立);5個反映了溫度變化(即小暑、大暑、處暑、小寒、大寒),7個反映了降水變化(即雨水、谷雨、白露、寒露、霜降、小雪、大雪),4個反映了物候變化(即驚蟄、清明、小滿、芒種),因而具有鮮明的時季轉換的提示意義,這是公歷所不具備的特點和優勢。   
                      第二,可以發揮指導農業生產的作用。“種田無定例,全靠看節氣”“不懂二十四節氣,白把種子撒下地”。農業生產最講究不誤農時,對準確把握播、耘、收、藏的時機提出了要求。二十四節氣的產生與農業生產密切相關,形成之后又成為農業生產的重要指南。如今,伴隨著城鎮化的加快和氣象學的進步,這種作用雖然大大下降,但我國仍然是農業大國,農業生產仍然是國民經濟中最基本的物質生產部門,是經濟發展的基礎,尤其近年來我國實施鄉村振興戰略,這使二十四節氣在指導農業生產方面仍然大有可為。長期以來,我國各地民眾因地制宜,形成了符合本地特點、具有本地特色、發揮本地優勢的節氣文化,尤其數量眾多的節氣諺語,是經驗和智慧的結晶,對于指導農業生產具有重要價值。如“立冬前犁金,立冬后犁銀,立春后犁鐵”,通過將立冬前后以及立春后犁地分別帶來的結果用“金”“銀”“鐵”加以表示,并列在一起,鮮明地反映出不同節氣犁地的不同作用,并清晰地表達了犁地宜于立冬前的指導性意見。   
                      第三,可以指導日常生活,尤其是在養生方面具有重要的指導意義。二十四節氣不僅關乎生產,亦深系生活,不少節氣諺語都是對生活的指導,從穿衣到飲食到娛樂休閑,無不涉及。如“一場秋雨一場寒,十場秋雨換上棉”“立夏栽茄子,立秋吃茄子”“谷雨過三天,園里看牡丹”“夏至餛飩冬至團,四季安康人團圓”等。現代社會,一方面物質生活水平提升,人們越來越注重生命的安全與健康,另一方面,人們的生活節奏日益脫離自然時序節奏,由此帶來身體亞健康等一系列問題,促使人們對反自然行為進行反思。二十四節氣養生強調人和著自然的節拍,根據不同的節氣適時調整自己的行為、飲食與精神,這對強身健體、延年益壽具有積極作用。 
                      第四,相關文化和實踐活動仍然可以豐富人們的生活內容,并為人們觀察自然、感受自然、詩意地棲居提供可能性。二十四節氣讓人更好地感知自然的韻律和氣息,從而真切地體會到融入自然、與自然和諧相處的親密與詩意。中國古代文人有許多因節氣而寫、為節氣而寫的詩詞,描繪氣候物候,抒發節氣推遷引起的情感之變,它們流傳至今,成為時下人們穿越時空、與詩人共同感受自然節律、讓生活充滿詩情的重要憑依。  
                      第五,具有重要的文化認同價值。二十四節氣是中華民族的原創文化,是古代民眾在長期實踐中不斷求索、認知、總結的智慧結晶,它所蘊涵的中華文明的宇宙觀和核心價值理念,是中華文明區別于其他文明的重要方面。歷史上,二十四節氣伴隨著王朝歷法的頒布成為老百姓遵循的日用之時,為全國各地所采用,并為多民族所共享,在長期的生產生活實踐中,各地的人們對于二十四節氣進行因地制宜、因俗制宜的創造性利用,形成了十分豐富的物質文化、制度文化和精神文化,甚至成為文化認同的重要載體。   
                      第六,具有重要的理念共享價值。二十四節氣傳承久遠,播布廣泛,文化形式多樣,文化內涵豐富,貫穿著天人合一的價值理念,遵循著順天應時、循時而動的法則,反映著中華民族對人與自然之間關系的深刻理解。尊重生命節奏,遵循自然規律,根據自然界的變化、時間的變化來調整自己的行為,循時而動,以合時宜,并充分利用自然之物,實現自身之圓滿。這些符合時宜的活動都有利于萬物生長,天人和諧。這種理念在全球生態環境嚴重惡化、可持續發展遭遇危機的當今,凸顯出普遍意義和共享價值。  
                      最后,二十四節氣還是文化創意的重要資源。二十四節氣是中華傳統文化的綜合載體,既有國家祭典,又有生產儀式和習俗活動,涉及飲食、服飾、信仰、娛樂、社會交往等多個方面,還有諺語、歌謠、傳說、詩詞、工藝、書畫等各種文藝作品,是中華民族珍貴的文化遺產,它們既可以為文化創意提供材料,也可以激發人們的創造力,是進行文化創意的重要資源。
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