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                    被人徹底遺忘的一封信,竟預言到百年來教育的種種弊痛
                    發表時間: 2017-05-09來源: 綜合

                     

                      是什么造成了當今國人的語文道德水平低下,是因為一百年前有人把四書五經從課堂廢除了。1916年9月,康有為聞北洋政府教育總長范源濂禁小學讀經,十分震驚,于是寫信一封,希望其能收回命令。以下是全文:

                      康有為致范源濂

                      (1916年9月)

                    靜生仁弟:

                          閱報聞弟禁小學讀經,頭痛目眩,舌撟手顫,且驚且駭!萬不意此等舉動出之于弟手也。

                          夫孔子之教,則全在于經,并非深奧,不過《論語》、《孟子》而已。《論語》者,自漢、晉、六朝以來及于日本,皆以之教童子,熟習讀之,令其深入腦間,習與性成者也。中國數千年,有律例而不行于民間,有長官而不與民接,無律師之保護維持,無警察之巡邏稽查,無牧師神父之七日教誨,然而禮讓化行,廉恥相尚,忠信相結,孝弟相率,節行相靡,獄訟寡少,天下晏然。豈有他哉?蓋所謂半部《論語》治之也。

                          今民國,以美國為盛,而芝加高一埠七日之間訟案四五千,紐約一埠狀師萬余。薄物細故,皆非狀師立案,則靡有不見欺。以視吾國舊俗,買田屋而可以白契交易,僻縣臥治,七日無一訟。蓋茍非野蠻之國,但觀狀師之多寡有無,則可知其治化之隆污高下。

                          歐人聞中國數千年來,不以狀師為治,其不學之人,不知吾中國數千年之舊文明,則疑以為無法律之野蠻;其知吾中國數千年之治者,則甚訝吾國之能無狀師以為。則二千年來,實以半部《論語》治天下故。

                          今之學者,以中國民法尚疏,商法未立,國際法未著,遂高言法治國,幾以法治為政治之極。噫!何其傎。

                          《論語》曰:“道之以德,齊之以禮,有恥且格。道之以政,齊之以刑,民免而無恥。”又曰:“聽訟吾猶人也,必也使無訟乎。”太史公曰:“法令者,治之具, 而非致治清濁之源也。”蓋法出而奸生,令下而詐。今南洋之人在英籍者,父子夫婦兄弟之間,開口而言,則曰沙拉無。沙拉者,法律之謂。蓋茍不犯法律,則一切皆可無忌憚,而聽其奸詐盜偽、險诐傾覆而無不可為。沙拉沙拉之聲盈耳,誠所謂法治國矣,其如風俗何!

                          今姑勿論有法律而即作弊于法律之 中。夫人之一身,一日之中,一生以內,動作云為,飲食居處,其涉于法律之中者幾何?蓋甚少。而一舉一動,一話一言,一談一笑,一起一居,一飲一食,一坐一 臥,一游一眺,一男一女,無一刻不在道德禮義之中。蓋在法律之中者一,而在道德之中者萬。則試問法律之治要乎,抑德禮之治要乎?以此比之,則法律之治與德禮之治,有萬與一之比。萬與一之比者,若泰山之于丘垤,河海之于行潦也,其為輕重若此矣,其比較至明。雖有蘇、張之舌,未能加一辯辭。

                          我與弟年來之交接,情意欣欣,揖讓相見,試問在法律之中乎?抑在德禮之中乎?所謂“道不可須臾離”也,又曰“出不由戶,何莫由斯道”。靜生乎,汝日游之而不知,習之而不察。

                          今之學者稍游外國,以為歐美之治,在其法律。夫謂歐美之法律完備則可,若謂其富強安樂由于其法律,則不可。英人勃拉士謂美國民主之善,在其道德與物質, 而不在于政治與法律。彼之教與政治分離,美國之立國者,在其中人三百萬家,其三百萬家皆信教最篤,故能畏天愛人以成為風俗,而為國基者。故其教會之盛,彌 滿全國,以助政治之所不逮,皆在其教為。否則上攻迷信而不畏天敬神,下不讀經而非圣無法,則惟有睢盱橫恣,無所忌憚,縱恣敗度,貪利忘恥而。則人將為禽 獸,何以立國?

                          今禁讀經,令其非圣無法,不幾驅天下之兒童、國民之子弟皆為禽獸乎?

                          或曰各國小學皆不讀其教之經,則我何妨取法。然我國必不可法歐美之小學,蓋有二。一則如前所言,美教會大盛,彌遍于朝野上下之間,凡人七日必到寺廟拳跪禮拜,口誦經文,而教會特別學堂,又遍立于全。凡五百家以上之村落,必有一牧師神父焉,輪日周旋各家,教誨而撫摩。七日則講經焉,其周匝深入人群之間者,至纖至密若是。故歐美人無論婦人孺子,有未入學校者,未有不讀教經。吾國既無教會之特別學堂,又無神父、牧師之家喻戶曉、七日宣講,又無人民之七日禮拜拳跪讀經,若吾國果禁讀經也, 則驅全國之兒童、國民子弟終身不知有經,則二三十年后,經必絕于天下。此其為滅孔教之法,誠至捷矣,其如全國人心風俗將何歸乎?歸之于佛,則出家寂滅,人必難從;歸之于耶,則不拜祠墓,人心亦不能從。然則將從無教之禽獸乎?

                          今之議者,或以孔子為舊道德,不能行之于新世。失舊道德既不可行,則彼豈有新道德以代之易之耶?新道德、舊道德之名詞,吾聞今人之謬說,亦已久矣。吾今以問子:孔子之道德,曰智仁勇信,曰忠恕廉恥,又曰聰明睿智,發強剛毅, 齊莊中正,文理密察,溫良恭儉,元亨利貞,君等豈能以智仁勇信為舊而別有新智仁勇信耶?君等以忠恕廉恥為舊,君等豈有新忠恕廉恥耶?君等以聰明睿智、發強剛毅、齊莊中正、文理密察、溫良恭儉、元亨利貞為舊,君等豈有新聰明睿智、發強剛毅、齊莊中正、文理密察、溫良恭儉、元亨利貞耶?若孝乎弟乎,禮乎義乎, 則今之人乎,或以不孝不弟為尚,無禮無義為主,若韓非子然,固以孝弟貞廉為風。而君等慕尚歐美個人獨立之俗,為子固不必孝其父,為弟固不必敬其兄。但假若汝之子迕逆汝,汝之弟攻犯汝,汝安之否乎?朋友以無禮無義施諸汝,汝安之否乎?則必怒極發狂而不可忍。若以綱常之立禮立義,其道太嚴,則孔子固有升平大同之道,曰男有分,女有歸,人人不獨親其親,子其子,使老有所終,壯有所用,鰥寡孤獨有所養。《論語》曰:“我不欲人之加諸我也,吾亦欲無加諸人。”則凡君等個人獨立之義,孔子早已有之。然則君等日在孔子大道之中,苦于不知。雖欲背之,而何能背之哉?

                          且夫孔子之經與佛、耶之經有異。佛經皆出世清凈之談,耶經只尊天養魂之說,其于人道舉動云為,人倫日用,家國天下,多不涉及,故學校之不讀經,無損。若孔子之經,則于人身之舉動云為,人倫日用,家國天下,無不纖悉周匝,故讀其經者,于人倫日用,舉動云為,家國天下,皆有德有禮,可持可循。故孔子之教,凡為人之道;故曰道不遠人,人之為道而遠人,不可以為道。若不讀經,則于人之一身舉動云為,人倫日用,家國天下,皆不知所持循。孰是孰非,孰從孰違,倀倀乎何所知,茫茫乎何所歸。無教之人,魂失憑依,舉國之人而失魂也,何以立國為?

                          靜生乎!汝知歐美學校之不讀經,而不知其故也,乃得半之數也,凡今中國之變法,皆在得半而棄半,此其所以敗也。夫歐美學校之可不讀經,以其人人皆被教會之教而無人不已讀經也,學校之不讀教經者,以其不切于治,而非同孔子之經之治教兼備也。此所以學歐美而與歐美相反也。

                          或謂,今學校課本,已有修身之一課矣,其于道德禮義未嘗無誨焉,則何必讀《論語》、《孟子》乃為有教乎?應之曰:今無論教科書之謬陋也,即使有條不紊,則編者可代為教主,可代為圣人矣。夫以今編教科書者,即非至愚極陋,其比于孔孟之圣且智何若? 其相遠若天淵焉,殆不待辯也。今于圣且智之孔孟之書,則必禁絕之,而于至愚極陋之編教科書者,則必奉行焉,誦讀焉,以代教主、代圣人。顛之倒之,自公召之,何其奇乎?

                          弟專心教育,昔編中華教科書以全份贈我,以問得失焉。吾實不暇,嘗偶拈歷史科閱其中一二條,乃以張居正之相業編在萬歷之先,是猶以戊戌變法編在同治以前也。又謂佛教最盛于唐,豈知北齊之僧二百萬,唐時僧僅余十余萬。其他錯謬,不勝枚舉。若此之書,以謎天下之兒童,而足為教科書乎?乃弟敢編之以教天下,乃反廢孔孟之經, 豈非異聞哉?是亦不可已乎。

                          或謂兒童之腦力未足,知識未開,《論》、《孟》字數太多,義理過深,學校日課無幾,年力有限,故不如廢棄讀經,以便其學習他課,保全腦力;且勉強讀經,兒童不解,是讀猶不讀耳,故舊時童塾有讀盡五經而不能執筆寫札者,足知讀經之無用,而費日力也。駁之曰:凡事之緩急去取,必問輕重而已,中國既無教會之特別學堂,無牧師神父之七日宣講,無人民七日禮拜之拳跪讀經,凡為之道,終身之用,但望兒童時熟讀經文,以為長大受用焉,奉行焉。若兒童時不讀經,則終身不知有經,即終身不知為人之道矣。夫小學者所以教為人也,中學者所以教為國民也,大學者所以教為士大夫也;《論》、《孟》之經,為人、為國民、為士大夫,兼而有之。若舉國無士大夫可也,無國民則尚可也,若舉國人而不知為人之道,則是不得為人、而將為獸矣。夫小學之他課不過藝能,今中國小學之課,并沒過之進攻、木工之藝而不能之,學成亦無使用,乃因此習藝而棄為人之道,何其輕重緩急之倒置乎。貴手足而棄心首,而欲人之靈,滋職業而伐本根,而欲其樹之茂,豈可得乎?

                          若謂日力不足,則今之讀經與教科書并行久矣,未見其不足也。假令不足,則刪修身一課,而即以經文代之,豈不更宜?夫修身一課,乃日本法,非特尊孔教,故刪讀經,而以修身代之者。在日本則或可,在吾國自有教主,自讀經文,以為兒童終身之本,豈不比修身課更為博大精深乎?若求兒童之解,即令修身一課,就其深者,亦與經義難通;就其淺者,則修身課與經書何嘗不并喻。然則修身一課,不成枝指駢拇乎?故無論兒童學課日力足否,而修身課必當刪除,讀經課必當保重,淺而易見,無待發明。

                          若謂經義精深,兒童難解,不以誦數責之,空讀而終不能記,若限誦數責之,則兒童之腦力益更不逮。夫以至幼之年。讀至深難解支書,費薄弱不足之腦,豈不誠可廢乎哉?駁之曰:董遇曰,讀書千遍,其義自見。吾中國舊人,無不童時讀經,亦誠多不能遍解者。及其長大,或與人談論,或偶爾出發,或從容溫習,多能發明其義,十得八九,其聰慧者,說經口如懸河;其頓色者,亦能心領神會,蓋皆由童時熟讀經文為之。

                          故教兒童讀經,今誠不必強求甚解,但使熟誦于口,化與心融,習與性成,優之游之,使自求之,至于渙然冰釋,怡然理順,不覺大化之陶已,至道之入神也。中國人之上者,或博極群書,下者或手執一業,要其所以心造自得,以為持身涉世、修身治人之道,蓋無不從少年《論》、《孟》來也。茍不從讀經來者,即能明一藝,而于持身涉世、修己治人之道必茫然不知,蠢如木偶,蓋比比然耳。故即舍道德而言藝事,則凡中國人之在南洋群島,其不讀經而僅入英人中小學者,雖或成一藝之才,但只供奔走職業;其為肆主及大商者,則皆中國書塾讀書之人,其試驗甚奇矣。故讀經者,其神識圓以通,故能處事治人,能間接以助成藝業;其不讀經而僅游學校者,其神識方以隘,不甚能處事治人,故直接以損其藝業也。今教育者,育兒童之智,以成事業乎?抑育兒童之鈍,而難成事業乎?蓋又不待言矣。

                          且讀經之勝于修身科者,更有進焉。凡人之性,無不向上,必立其標的,定其歸依,令其趨向右方,興起有道,然后鼓舞振發,乃成人才,上者則為豪杰圣賢,下之亦不失鄉黨自好。所以化民成俗,興育人才,所關至大也。凡人莫不從童子始,凡教莫不自童子興。故誦先圣之言,講先圣之行,心悅誠服,手舞足蹈,或歌或泣,以興以觀,必有天下公共最敬之人,以為模范,以為規則,乃能發憤感動人心于不自知,此一國豪杰人才所由出也。若不讀《論》、《孟》而讀修身科書,散漫而無統紀,偏頗而不足模范,既不足感動人心志,假有感動,則中下之人物,可感動興起者,豈非極微耶?是非無從正定,從違不知所向,孟浪而行,有同酒狂,以此教民,何其反歟!

                          或謂孔子多言君臣之義,不和共和之制,既非時宜,則當廢矣!豈知孔子之所謂君臣者,猶主伯亞旅云爾.<傳>曰:“王臣公、公臣卿、卿臣大夫、大夫臣士、士臣皂、皂臣輿、輿臣隸、隸臣仆、仆臣臺。”高一級則為君,低一級則為臣,自漢晉六朝,僚吏對郡將,府主皆稱臣,至梁武帝始禁,對皇帝外不得稱臣,改稱下官,后世君臣嚴別之重,乃自梁始,迄至于今。然秦漢時人,朋友相呼皆自稱臣,今朋友相呼,稱人為君,自稱為仆,豈真然耶?故孔子之言君臣,如一公司一店肆,則有司理與諸伙云爾,司理待諸伙不可以不禮,諸伙侍司理不可以不忠。孔子曰:“君使臣以禮,臣侍君以忠。”不過如是而已,世雖共和,而主伯、亞旅之等級,司理、諸伙之相待,豈能廢乎?然則以君臣之道攻孔子者,乃不自解文義,以妄攻難云爾,薩沙昧目,而為日月不明,徒取笑耳!

                          且孔子大同之道,天下為公,選賢與能。而(易)稱“見群龍無首”,為天下治,共和之制,實先創自孔子;今之議者,不學無術,日在孔子大道之中,而妄攻孔子。是猶嬰兒之食母乳。乃反號哭以手抓母耳。且讀經之事,實關大教,則非言司一人所能興廢;甲為教育總長而能廢之,則乙為教育總長復之,不幾同于兒戲乎?且今四年三變令,天下之兒童,何所從與?弟今有權廢之,能必后任不有權復之乎?且共和之制,本于民意。今試問四萬萬之國民,以為讀經宜存乎?宜廢乎?且除數十萬之殊教與新學者,殆無不以讀經為然者也。

                          吾為弟此令,氣踴如山,欲電勸止,而令已行。計必不反改。故不欲多言。浪游山澤,漫游蘇中,偶入人家,微行書塾,隨意文人,讀經宜廢否?咸讀此令,怒形于色,漫罵政府。嗟夫!管子謂下令如流水之源,令順民心,使管子而不知治體則可也;使管子稍知政體,則弟之下令,大逆民心,何其與管子反哉?

                          弟為國務員,贊褒大政,今百廢不舉,國本顛危,鄭家屯案,國論嘩然,外交變迫。其亡其亡;弟不以此之憂,而先以禁讀經為務,先后緩急,倒置乖舛。何其背謬之甚,一至于是哉?或者謂為人所挾,不爾,不似弟子為也。

                          弟性篤謹,待吾最敬,明知令行難改。吾亦豈忍弟之得罪天下后世。緘口結舌而不相告乎?凡人之情,莫不護過飾非,然能見過以內訟改者,君子也;自文其過而不肯改者,小人也。靜生乎,庶幾改此令也,予日望之。

                    責任編輯: 和諧中國網
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